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Hi Everyone!

I made this site while in the second half of my physiology and anatomy class in college as a study guide for my study group. I wish I still had my pictures from my other lessons that I could put up, but I already deleted them, so this is all that is left. I tried to make this as accurate and as helpful as possible, but there is a chance that I made a few mistakes in some of the info I put up here (although I haven’t found any yet). I didn’t realize I’d have people using this site after I was done with the class. I hope you all find these aids helpful, almost all the pictures were taken by me, and some of the charts (pulse points, ECG…) were found off the internet.
By the way, the textbook our class used was, Human Anatomy and Physiology, by Marieb 8th Edition, as well as the lab manual that comes with it. If you’re using it, you’ll see that I’ve numbered the lessons by what it shows in the lab manual. That’s all for now, so good luck studying!

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Blood Pressure — 33A

Things to Know:
Cardiac Cycle: equivalent to 1 complete heart beat
Systole: ventricular contraction
Diastole: ventricular relaxation
Heart Sounds: “lup-dup.”
First Sound: Lup refers so closure of the AV valves and opening of semilunar valves
Second Sound: Dup refers to closing of the semilunar valves and opening of AV valves.
Auscultation Areas: sorry, i don’t have them. pg 494 of lab manual
Stethoscope: -__- you know what it is
Pulse: alternating surges of pressure in an artery that occur with each contraction and relaxation of the left ventricle.
Pulse Pressure: Systolic minus Diastolic Pressure
Superficial Pulse Points:

  • Here are the 9 SUPERFICIAL PULSE POINTS

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Blood Pressure: the pressure the blood exerts against any unit are or blood vessel walls, usually arteries
Systolic Pressure: the pressure in arteries at the peak of ventricular ejection
Diastolic Pressure: the pressure during ventricular relaxation
Sphygmomanameter: it’s the cuff thingy or old school way (non-electrical way) of measuring BP. It’s the instrument you wrap around your arm.
Sounds of Korotkoff: the first sounds you hear when you release the pressure from your arm and the blood starts flowing through. The first sounds you hear are the systolic pressure. When you can no longer hear the Sounds of K, that is the diastolic pressure.

Respiratory –36

Well, here’s the respiratory system stuff… Most of the pictures are redundant, but I guess it’s good for reviewing =]

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Lung

Identify Primary Bronchi, Hilum ,Bronchioles, Respiratory Bronchioles, Respiratory membrane

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Upper Respiratory

Upper Respiratory

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Larynx

Larynx

Chart

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Lung with Emphysema

Healthy Lung

Adipose Tissue

Trachea

INTRINSIC CONDUCTION SYSTEM

Intrinsic Conduction System: The components of the ICS-- Sinoatrial (SA) node, Atrioventricular (AV) node, AV bundle of His (in the chart it says interventricular septum, but it's also the bundle of His), Right and Left bundle branches, and Purkinje fibers.

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ELECTROCARDIOGRAM

Electrocardiogram (ECG)--THINGS TO KNOW: P wave, QRS complex, T wave, PR interval, ST segment, QT interval.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………Tachycardia: a rate over 100 beats per minute.
Bradycardia: a rate below 60 beats per minute.
Fibrillation: occurs when there is prolonged tachycardia. It is a condition of rapid uncoordinated heart contractions which makes the heart useless as a pump.

Basically, the lymphatic system is responsible for transporting lymph fluid to the blood vessels and protecting the body from foreign material.

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ANATOMY: Identify the lymph nodes (cervical, axillary, inguinal), thoracic duct, cisterna chili and right lymphatic duct.

Lymphatic System

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PHYSIOLOGY: Identify the capsule, cortex, medulla, and germinal centers.

Physiology of a lymph node.

Artery and Vein Physiology

IDENTIFY:

  • Tunica Intima/Interna
  • Tunica Media
  • Tunica Adventitia/Externa
  • Arteries (Take blood away from the heart)
  • Veins (Take blood to the heart)

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FOR THE UPPER LIMB/ARM, IDENTIFY: (For arteries) Axillary artery, Brachial artery, Radial artery, Ulnar artery. (For veins) Axillary veins, Brachial veins, Cephalic veins, Basilic veins, Median cubital veins, Median antebrachial vein, Ulnar vein, Radial vein, Superficial palmar arch.

Make sure you remember that the radial and ulnar veins are right next to the radial and ulnar arteries. The radial and ulnar veins are deep and this is confirmed by Professor Stewart.

Cephalic-Brachial-Basilic

Cephalic-Brachial-Basilic

Brachial-Median Cubital-Basilic

Brachial-Median Cubital-Basilic

Median Antebrachial-Radial-Ulnar-Basilic

Median Antebrachial-Radial-Ulnar-Basilic

Superficial palmar venous arch

Superficial palmar venous arch

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Lower Limb

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TRUNK–IDENTIFY:

(For Arteries): Ascending Aorta, Aortic Arch, Descending/Thoracic Aorta, Abdominal Aorta, Internal Carotid Artery, External Carotid Artery, Braciocephalic trunk, Left common carotid artery, Right common carotid artery, Left subclavian artery, Right subclavian artery, Celiac trunk, Left gastric artery, Splenic artery, Common hepatic artery, Superior mesenteric artery, Renal artery, Gonadal artery (Testicular/Ovarian), Inferior mesenteric artery.

(For Veins): Gonadal vein, Renal vein, Inferior mesenteric vein, Superior mesenteric vein, Inferior vena cava, Superior vena cava, Brachiocephalic veins, Left/Right subclavian veins, External jugular vein, Internal jugular vein

Abdomen

Chart

There's too many to list...

This has a lot too...

....

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Blood — 29A (29B)

Lymphocyte

Agranulocyte--Lymphocyte

<-- Lymphocyte: The smallest of the leukocytes, it is approximately the size of a red blood cell. The nucleus stains dark blue to purple, is generally spherical or slightly indented, and accounts for most of the cell mass. It mounts the immune response by direct cell attack or antibodies.

Monocyte

Agranulocyte--Monocyte

Monocyte

Monocyte: The nucleus is U- or kidney-shaped; gray-blue cytoplasm. It's function is phagocytosis; develop into macrophages in tissues. It is the largest of the leukocytes and is approximately twice as large as a RBC but only represents 3% to 8% of the leukocyte population.

Erythrocyte

Erythrocyte

Erythrocyte

Erythrocyte: It's a biconcave, anucleate disc (it does not reproduce, so it has a limited life span). Usually salmon colored. It's function is to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide. They are also the most abundant cell type (4-6 million) in the whole blood stream. ................................................................

Neutrophil

Granulocyte--Neutrophil

Neutrophil

Neutrophil: **LOOK HERE ** This pointer is not pointed at the neutrophil. The neutrophil is the one towards the bottom.** Neutrophils are multilobed; it has inconspicuous cytoplasmic granules. It's function is to phagocytize bacteria. In this slide, the 3 lobes are very obvious. .......................................

Eosinophil

Granulocyte--Eosinophil

Eosinophil

Eosinophil: The eosinophil's nucleus is bilobed, the cytoplasmic granules are usually reddish. It's function is to kill parasitic worms; destroy antigen-antibody complexes; inactivate some inflammatory chemicals of allergy. (This slide was not shown in lab. It is just a picture taken from the internet). ........................................

Basophil

Basophil

Basophil

Basophil: (This slide was also taken off of the internet, the lab doesn't have any slides of basophils). Basophils have lobed nuclei; large blue-purple cytoplasmic granules. It's function is to release histamines and other mediators of inflammation.

Platelets

Platelets: It's a discoid cytoplasmic fragment that contains granules. The stain is deep purple. It's function is to seal small tears in blood vessels; instrumental in blood clotting.

Heart — 30

Heart

Heart

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Just a small tip, it’s easier to know the veins and arteries of the heart by knowing what they are paired with. For example:

  • The Marginal Artery is paired with the Small Cardiac Vein
  • The Anterior Interventricular Artery is paired with the Great Cardiac Vein
  • The Posterior Interventricular Artery is paired with the Middle Cardiac Vein

So all you really need to know is that the left and right coronary arteries emerge from the aorta, and the coronary sinus is the big bulge in the posterior aspect of the heart.

This is the Anterior View of the heart. You can somewhat see the left and right coronary arteries. But you can definitely see the Anterior Interventricular Artery and Great Cardiac Vein. And some Marginal Artery and Small Cardiac Vein.

This is the Posterior View of the Heart. You can tell from the coronary sinus (the big blue bulging one). Here you can see the Posterior Interventricular Artery and Middle Cardiac Vein on the rightmost side. (Please correct me if I'm wrong.)

This is the left part of the heart. You can tell from the smaller auricle (which is on the left). You don't see much here, just the left coronary artery. Oh, and the pulmonary artery (blue) and vein (2 red).

This is the left part of the heart. You can tell from the smaller auricle (which is on the left). You don't see much here, just the left coronary artery. Oh, and the pulmonary artery (blue) and vein (2 red).

This is the right side of the heart, I think. This really isn't a good picture, I'm sorry. You should see the marginal artery and small cardiac vein, but the position is sooo bad. =/

This is the right side of the heart, I think. This really isn't a good picture, I'm sorry. You should see the marginal artery and small cardiac vein, but the position is sooo bad. =/

You can almost see all the valves here, except the aortic semilunar valve. But all chambers are clear.

Crappy view of the heart, SORRY!!!

********HEART FLOW********

  • Pulmonary Circuit brings blood in to the right side of the heart, by way of the inferior and superior vena cava.
  • From the sup./inf. vena cava, the blood is sent into the right atria CHAMBER.
  • It goes THROUGH the tricuspid valves, into the next CHAMBER, the right ventricle.
  • From the right ventricle, it goes THROUGH the pulmonary semilunar valves into the pulmonary trunk.
  • From the pulmonary trunk, the blood is sent to the whole body by way of the systemic circuit.
  • The blood comes back through the pulmonary arteries and enters the left atria CHAMBER.
  • It then goes THROUGH the mitral/bicuspid valves and into the left ventricle CHAMBER.
  • After, it goes up into the ascending aorta, THROUGH the aortic semilunar valves.
  • And then of course then the aortic arch and descending aorta, etc.

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***You should start this video at 1:50. He goes into detail about pre-lab stuff. Also, during the identification he mentions a “septum,” which we know as the interventricular septum. And when he identifies the valves, he doesn’t mention the specific names, like the tricuspid or mitral/bicuspid valves.

Here are some youtube videos of the venous and arterial divisions of the body.

The coronary blood vessels are a little confusing, but if you can follow her everything’s pretty accurate.

VENOUS DIVISION



ARTERY DIVISION



Reproductive System







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Spermatagonia
Spermatagonia

Spermatagonia: These cells are on the outermost part of the cell.

Primary Spermatocyte

Primary Spermatocyte: They are much larger than the spermatagonia.

Spermatid

Spermatid: These cells are the innermost apparent cells.

Spermatazoa

Spermatazoa: These sperm cells have the tails that extend towards the middle of the cell.

Sertoli Cell: An elongated cell within the lumen that nourishes the spermatid as they transform into sperm. It's supposed to be located in between the cells.

Penis

Penis: pointer is on the spongy urethra and is surrounded by corpus spongiosum. The top portion is the corpus cavernosum.

Primordial Follicle

Secondary Follicle

Secondary Follicle

Graafian Follicle

Graafian Follicle

Menstrual Cycle

Menstrual Cycle: It looks very messy and disorganized.

Proliferative (Follicular) Phase

Proliferative (Follicular) Phase: The glands are small, circular shaped.

Secretory Phase

Secretory Phase: The glands are elongated compared to the proliferative phase.